Spanish influence in ireland
The book of the invasions of Ireland
Essex and young Cecil tried to weaken their positions in the council by proposing the appointment of members of the rival party to the Irish mission, and thus eliminate them from the court. After the death of Sir Richard Bingham in Dublin there were no more candidates left, and Essex was forced to offer his services. Although with some reservations, the queen finally appointed Robert Devereux Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; Essex triumphantly announced his determination to defeat O'Neill on the field of battle. After certain misunderstandings with the queen, Essex was forced to offer his services.
After some disagreements with the queen over the details of the mission, preparations began in the first week of March 1599. Royal patents were issued exonerating Essex of the debts acquired by his father during his service in Ireland, and on March 12 he received the appointment, being authorized to spare the traitor's life in return for his submission and to grant knighthood to those who deserved it for their services.
The army consisted of 16,000 men, with 1,300 horses, while the rebel armies numbered 20-30,000 men, half of whom operated in Ulster, where royal authority was limited to a few forts supplied by defended towns in the east of the island. Essex counted among its troops 2,000 veterans of the Dutch Wars, commanded by Henry Docwra. Every three months reinforcements were to be received from England to cover casualties, and a regular mail service was established between Dublin and London via Holyhead. The troops were to be sent from England to the island of Essex.
In the field of development cooperation, since the approval of the Master Plan 2005-2008, equal opportunities between women and men has adopted a double priority approach, both horizontally and sectorially, as is also reflected in the IV Master Plan for Cooperation 2013-2016. Gender mainstreaming is applied as a priority in both bilateral and multilateral action, promoting more specific actions aimed at reducing discrimination against women and for equal opportunities, and considerably increasing the funds and contributions directed to international organizations specialized in gender issues (UNIFEM, INSTRAW, UNFPA, UNDP, GENDERNET of the DAC/OECD, etc).
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de Vries, H., Engels, R., Kremers, S., Wetzels, J. y Mudde, A. (2003). Parents' and friends' smoking status as predictors of smoking onset: findings from six European countries. Health Education Research, 18, 627-636. Doi: 10.1093/her/cyg032
Jiménez Iglesias, A. (2009). El significado de la monitorización familiar en el desarrollo adolescente (consumo de sustancias y bienestar psicológico). Madrid: Centro de Investigación y Estudios de Familia (CIFAM).
Kristjansson, A. L., Sigfusdottir, I. D., James, J. E., Allegrante, J. P. y Helgason, A. R. (2010). Perceived parental reactions and peer respect as predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Addictive Behaviours, 35, 256-259. Doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.10.002
Leakage of the Irish earls
A new IMF staff study shows that in Europe, even when personal preferences are taken into account, national policies can encourage women's participation in the labor force and expand their chances for advancement.
In regions like Europe, where populations are aging, the working-age population is shrinking and productivity is declining, it is more important than ever to provide a level playing field for women to work full-time and move up the career ladder.
Clearly, women's personal preferences and attitudes toward work are important factors in determining their decision to enter the labor force, as IMF staff research confirms. This is especially true in Europe, where women currently face no legal restrictions on employment, have received an equal level of education as men and have fewer children, and social norms have changed.